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Green un-roasted coffee

Starting to pale -- Early yellow stage -- Yellow-Tan stage

Light Brown stage -- Brown Stage -- 1st crack begins

1st crack under way -- 1st crack finishes -- This is considered a City Roast

City+ roast: The stage between the first and second crack

Full City roast: On the verge of 2nd crack

Full City+ roast: First audible snaps of 2nd crack

Vienna - Light French roast: 2nd crack is under way

Full French roast 2nd crack is very rapid, nearing its end (caution! Starbucks' roast)

Fully carbonized: Some call this Italian or Spanish roast, an insult to either!

At this stage, the coffee can be over 25% ash; it is carbonized, dead, charcoal ?imminent fire