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[의학영어. Medical English]

1. 발표와 토론을 위한 영어 표현

[시작]

Thank you for taking time out of your busy schedule to be here today.

I'll start with an overview of my company.

These are the main points I'll cover in my presentation.

I'll start with a little background on the project.

I'd be glad to take questions at the end of my presentation.

If you have any questions, feel free to ask them any time during the presentation.

I'll try to make complex ideas easy to understand.

There will be time for Q and A at the end.

Here is the first story.


[진행]

I'd like to briefly tell you about the current state of the job market.

Now let’s turn to the second issue, security.

That brings me to the second part of my presentation.

This table tells us that our inventory level keeps going up.

Going back to a point I made earlier...

Now you may ask 'What’s wrong with that'.

Now you may wonder why this should be a problem.

Let's consider this in more detail.

Take Google for example.

A good example of this is the success of web-based games.

Another point is that...

This is what I found out.

What I discovered was this is not true.

With that in mind...

Let me briefly explain this report.

Let me talk about the price.

Let me give you an example.

I am pleased to report that

My concern is that

The same thing can happen again.

What we need is something different; we need a different kind of s

This is the picture I want to focus on.

Now let’s take a look at Kakao page.

I was extremely excited about this result.

If you compare this to that, you can see the difference.


[강조]

I'd like to draw your attention to the fact that...

Here, I'd like to point out that there's a lot of room for improving quality.

I'll look at this in more detail later in my talk.

So, what does this mean for our industry?

Let me point out that the technology is not mature yet.

What makes this technology unique is that it is open-source.

What I'm trying to say is that...

I think we should consider buying directly from the producers.

The first point I want to make is that innovation is the key to success.

The second point I want to make is that time is not on our side.

The most important implication of this is that...

I must emphasize that consumers are turning away from junk food.

From an endoscopist's point of view...

If our findings are confirmed, then the implications must be significant.

Our sales are up by 32% but prices are down by 50%.

So, basically this is my point: if you see something impossible, make it possible.

This is the picture I want to focus on.

Now let’s take a look at Kakao page.

I was extremely excited about this result.

If you compare this to that, you can see the difference.

We have to restructure our company, that is to say, we should just focus on our core business.


[마무리]

That brings me to the end of my presentation.

I'll end with some questions for us to discuss.

Before I finish, I’d like to summarize the main points.

I'd like to close by saying one more thing.

It's been an excellent session, I think.

I would like to mention some of the principal points that have emerged from the presentations and discussions.

Let me just review what we've seen today.

I'd like to finish my presentation by showing this slide (또는 with a story).

Consider this; according to a recent survey...


[질의 응답]

I'm sorry I didn’t catch your question.

I really appreciate your input.

I take your point.

You are quite right on that point.

I'm afraid that’s outside the scope of this presentation.

Let me deal with the last question first. If I understood correctly, your question was about...

I'll come back to that question later in my presentation.

I'll have to check on that and get back to you.

I am not in a position to say anything on that.

I hope that answers your question.

I have a slightly different point of view.

Looking behind the statistics, wee see that most children are first introduced to computers in their homes and at school through games.

Apart from the weight, I really like your new product.


[인용]

Steve Jobs (1997): Apple is executing wonderfully on many of the wrong things. I've met some extraordinary people at Apple. There are a lot of great people at Apple. They are doing some of the wrong things because the plan has been wrong.


2. PRACTICAL ENGLISH FOR ENDOSCOPISTS 내시경 의사를 위한 영어 표현

2018-11-8 국제진료센터 김지운

1) EGD

Good morning (afternoon), Mr./Ms. Smith!

Tell me your name and your date of birth.

Are you ready for the procedure?

Are you nervous? Don’t worry, it will be fine.

Procedure doesn’t hurt. It’s just feels uncomfortable.

(Am I gonna be awake?)

You will be drowsy. You might gag, but I will talk you through it.

The most difficult part is when the camera passes the throat.

You will feel very full and feel like you can’t breath.

But don’t worry. You CAN breath. In through the nose, out through the mouth.

Let’s get you positioned.

Lay on your left side with knees pulled up to the chest.

We will hook you up to the monitors, then give you medicine.

Throat numbing spray tastes nasty.

Here comes the medicine.

You cannot talk with the mouthpiece in.

It helps if you let the spit fall off to the side.

You will gag more if you try to swallow.

Close your eyes and think of happy thoughts.

You will feel sleepy soon.

(Insertion and gagging)

This is the hard part. Concentrate on your breathing. Try not to gag.

Now we are in. Keep breathing ? in through the nose, out through the mouth.

You are doing very well.

(Entering pylorus)

You will feel pressure in the stomach. Going deep.

Things look fine.

Now we are back in the stomach.

Taking a really good look.

You are doing excellent. Concentrate on your breathing.

Now I’m blowing air into the stomach. Try not to burp.

(Burp)

Let’s try again. I need to blow air into the stomach so I can get a really good look. Hold your burp.

Good job!

Let me take some air out.

We are almost done. Let me take a few biopsies.

Concentrate on your breathing.

Coming out, looking at the esophagus.

Great job, Mr./Ms. Smith!

Everything went well.

You’ll go to the recovery room.

I will come and talk you when you wake up more.


2) COLONOSCOPY

Good morning (afternoon), Mr./Ms. Smith!

Are you ready for the procedure?

How did the preparation go?

People say that’s the worst part of getting a colonoscopy.

Did you drink all of that nasty stuff?

What time was the last drop?

Great job!

We will take a really good look.

Tell me your name and date of birth.

Let’s get you positioned.

Let’s have you lay down on your left side, facing the wall.

Let’s pull up your knees to the chest.

We will hook you up to the monitors, then give you medicine.

(Is it gonna hurt? Am I gonna feel it?)

You might sleep through the whole thing or wake up during the painful part. Only temporary. I will talk you through it. Don’t worry.

Here comes the medicine.

Close your eyes and think of happy thoughts.

You will feel sleepy soon.

We will give you more medicine as we go along.

Relax.

(Sedated)

Let’s put some jelly first.

I’m checking with my finger. (Let’s check your prostate.)

OK. Here comes the camera.

Take some deep breath in and out.

(Rectosigmoid junction)

Here comes the twisty part.

You’ll feel some pressure.

(Sigmoid)

(If patient is wide awake or says hurts) Let’s give you more medicine.

You’ll feel some more pressure.

(Descending about to turn splenic flexure)

You might feel some pain now. Take a deep breath. In and out.

(Ow that hurts!)

It’s only temporary. It will get better soon. Doing very well.

(Ow that hurts!)

We are almost there. Good job!

(Transverse about to turn hepatic flexure)

This is the last push. Take a deep breath.

(In cecum) Great Job! Let’s take a good look.

[TROUBLE]

(Ascending, difficult to get into cecum).

Let’s take a deep breath in…then hold it, hold it, hold it!

(Cannot get into cecum)

I’m having a little trouble getting into the last part.

I’m gonna have a nurse push on your stomach. Relax your stomach and let the nurse push.

Try not to push against it. Try to relax.

OK, here it comes.

(In cecum) Great job! Let’s take a good look.

(Cannot get into cecum)

Whew!…this is a tough one.

Let’s have you turn and lay on your back.

We will help you.

Keep your knees up. (Cross your legs.)

Great job!

Let’s take a deep breath in…then hold it, hold it, hold it!

(In cecum) Great job! Let’s take a good look.

(Cannot get into cecum) OK. Nurse will push on your stomach. Try to relax and let the nurse push. OK, here it comes.

(In cecum) Great job! Let’s take a good look.

(Finished right sided exam, in transverse) Let’s have you turn back on your left side. Slowly. Good job!

[WITHDRAWAL]

You are doing very well.

I’m taking a very good look.

You may feel some pressure here and there.

If you feel like passing gas, go ahead.

I’m putting air in to take a good look.

No shame. It’s not going to smell. We are all used to it.

(If passing gas too much) Let’s try to hold the gas. I need to look carefully.

Great job!

(Rectum, before retroflexion)

This is the last part. You will feel some pressure in your rectum.

Great job, Mr./Ms. Smith!

Let me take some air out.

Everything went well.

You’ll go to the recovery room.

I will come and talk you when you wake up more.

[POLYPECTOMY]

(Biopsy, if patient awake)

I found a tiny/small polyp, taking it out. It’s not gonna hurt.

(Snare)

I’m gonna take a polyp out. We are putting a cold gel pad on your leg/butt.

It’s not gonna hurt.

(Is it big? Is it serious? How big is it? On and on)

It’s a good size polyp. Let me take this out. Let me concentrate.

Don’t move.

Good job!

(How many polyps did you take out?)

___ polyps.

Everything went well.

You’ll go to the recovery room.

I will come and talk you when you wake up more.

* practical_english_endoscopist.txt (김지운 선생님)


3. 틀리기 쉬운 발음

'에데마'가 아닙니다.

'에로우전'이 아닙니다.

'레전'이 아닙니다.

기타 틀리기 쉬운 발음


4. 논문 쓸 때 틀리기 쉬운 표현

결과에는 과거 시제를 쓰고, 표와 그림에는 현재 시제를 쓴다.

P=0.01 ⇒ P = 0.05

(Fig.1) ⇒ (Fig. 1)

(Table 1.) ⇒ (Table 1)

Five patients who underwent ESD for EGC ⇒ Five patients who received ESD for EGC

Six patients were re-grouped as posttreatment BAI-EGCs.

Additional surgery rate was ⇒ The rate of additional surgery was

The proportion of EGC in the entire gastric cancer is increading due to the technical development and the introduction of mass screening program. ⇒ The proportion of EGC among all gastric cancers in increasing due to technical advances...

In the real clincal practice ⇒ In real clincal practice (the 없음)

absolute indications of ESD ⇒ absolute indications for ESD

We grouped the cases twice to analyze the grouping discrepancy before and after the treatment. ⇒ We grouped the cases before and after treatment to analyze grouping discrepancies.

The most common reason of this discrepancy ⇒ the most common reason for this discrepancy

On the contray ⇒ In contrast

the change in ⇒ changes in

Table 4 shows comparison between A and B ⇒ Table 4 compares A and B

necessity of additional treatment ⇒ necessity for additional treatment

There is a controvery about ⇒ Controvery remains about

Literatures on expanded indications are heterogeneous ⇒ The literature on expanded indications is heterogeneous.

There are some limitations in the present study. ⇒ There are some limitations to the present study.

Possible - it could happen < 50%; probable - it could happen > 50%

M.D. ⇒ MD; e.g., ⇒ eg; April 16th ⇒ Apr. 16 ⇒ Apr 16

P=0.05 ⇒ P = 0.05

(Fig.1) ⇒ (Fig. 1)

Brown et al(1987) ⇒ Brown et al (1987)

4 times more ⇒ 4 fold greater

and and and and ⇒ subsequently, followed by, leading to, resulting in, consequently, finally...


5. 홍성태 저 '의학논문 매력 있게 쓰자'

2014년 8월 23일 대한의학학술지편집인협의회의 제 3회 논문작성 워크숍에서 'Table, figure 및 결과작성요령'에 대한 강의를 하였습니다. 이 자리에서 홍성태 교수님께서 쓰신 '의학논문 매력 있게 쓰자'라는 책을 받았습니다. 일부를 옮깁니다.

(104쪽) 5) 동사의 활용 - 영어는 동사 단어에 어미를 붙여서 파생한 명사가 많다. 이러한 파생명사보다는 가급적 원래 의미의 동사를 사용하는 것이 낫다.

X - Foreign body removal was carried out using a cystoscope.
O - The foreign body was removed using a cystoscope.

X - Measurement of its diameter was done using an ocular micrometer.
O - Its diameter was measured using an ocular micrometer.


(105쪽) 6) 능동태와 수동태 - 영문 원저논문에서 수동채 문장이 많이 등장한다. 가급적 능동형 문장으로 작성하는 것이 좋지만 주어가 마땅치 않거나 주어부 단어가 너무 길면 수동태로 작성하는 것이 낫다. 우리가 흔히 하는 실수가 자동사를 수동형 문장에 사용하는 것이다. 그리고 타동사 중에서도 수동형으로 사용하지 않는 것이 있는가 하면 항상 수동형으로 사용하는 단어도 있다. 자동사와 타동사 용법이 모두 있어 쓰임에 따라 의미가 달라지는 동사도 있으므로 유의해야 한다.

X - A part of the tumor mass was remained after the surgery. 자동사인데 수동형으로 잘못 사용
O - A part of the tumor mass remained after the surgery.

X - A hazardous chemical is contained by the flask. 항상 능동형 문장으로 작성하는 동사를 수동형으로 잘못 사용.
O - The flask contains a hazardous chemical.


(112쪽) 11) 콜론과 세미콜론 - 콜론(:)은 문장을 이해하기 쉽게 예를 들어 설명하는 경우 접속사 대신 흔하게 사용한다. 콜론을 찍으면 일단 그 문장은 그 자리에서 끝나고 그 뒤는 단어를 나열하거나 완전하지 않은 문장인 구로 정리된다. 세미콜론(;)은 쉼포(,)와 구분하는 큰 쉼포로 사용한다.

예 - The findings of body weight 5 weeks after the experiment by groups were as follows: control, 57 g; test group 1, 117 g; test group 2 131 g.


(127쪽) 전문가 심사

Article: PARINT-D-11-0000

General Comment: This manuscipt is an original article that studied serum IgG reaction to ...

Overall quality of writing scientific manuscript requires professional language editing. There are grammatical mistakes in the text.

Specific Comments:


(146쪽) 실제로 저자됨 위반(authorship abuse)이 발생하기도 한다. 명예저자(공짜저자, gift author, honorary author)는 전혀 연구나 논문작성에 기여함이 없이 공저자로 무임승차하는 경우를 말한다. 공동연구를 특징으로 하는 의학분야에서 아주 흔한 유형으로, 윗사람을 모시거나 영향력이 큰 사람을 정치적인 목적으로 공저자로 영입하는 행위도 실제로 발생한다. 유령저자(ghost author)는 연구에 실제로 열심히 참여하여 저자로 의당 참여할 사람이 저자에서 배제되는 경우를 말한다. 명예저자가 저자됨에서 부당한 참여라면 유령저자는 부당한 배제에 해당한다. 유령저자 유형은 실제로 많이 발생하지는 않지만 그 여파가 훨씬 심각할 수 있어 이러한 일이 생기지 않도록 주의해야 한다. 국내에서 유령저자 사건으로 인해 연구책임자가 형사처벌을 받은 사례가 있다. 그 외 잘 아는 연구자끼리 서로 저자됨을 교환하는 교환저자(swap author), 유명한 사람을 일방적으로 끼워넣는 도용저자(theft author) 등 다양한 유형의 저자됨 위반유형이 있다.


6. 어떤 사람이 논문 표현의 숨은 뜻을 설명하는 흥미로운 자료를 보았습니다. 일부를 소개합니다.

It has long been known... 원전을 찾아보지 않았다.

While it has not been possible to provide definite answers to the questions... 실험은 실패했지만 그래도 논문을 내야겠다.

Three of the samples were chosen for detailed study... 나머지 샘플은 해석 불가능했다.

These results will be in a subsequent report... 연구비 제대로 받으면 언젠가 쓸 생각이다.

It is believed that ... 나는 그렇게 생각한다.

It is generally believed that ... 나 말고도 몇 명 더 그렇게 생각한다.

Correct within an order of magnitude ... 틀렸다.

A statistically oriented projection of the significance of these findings ... 적당히 때려 맞춰보면

A careful analysis of obtainable data... 맥주를 엎지르는 바람에 데이터를 적는 노트 3장을 날려먹었다.

It is hoped that this study will stimulate further investigation in this field... 저는 그만 둘래요.

In my experience ... 한 번

In case after case... 두 번

In a series of cases ... 세 번


7. 어떤 리뷰

There were some mild grammatical errors and misspelled words throughout the paper which should be addressed prior to acceptance. That being said, the paper does well to address the apparent discrepancy that can occur with endoscopic resection. The included figures are appropriate but the treatment algorithm figure was overly complex. This paper should be accepted for publication pending correction of grammatical and spelling errors.


[References]

1) 미국 드라마 단골 표현 600

2) 의학논문발표 영어표현 - 어떤 blog

3) practical_english_endoscopist.txt (김지운 선생님)

© 일원내시경교실 바른내시경연구소 이준행. EndoTODAY Endoscopy Learning Center. Lee Jun Haeng